K.E.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Weather is a combination of sunlight, wind, snow or rain, and temperature in a particular region at a particular time. Scientists measure weather conditions to describe and record the weather and to notice patterns over time. Plants and animals (including humans) respond to different weather conditions in different ways.
K.P.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Objects can be described and classified by their observable properties, by their uses, and by whether they occur naturally or are manufactured (human-made). Different properties of objects are suited for different purposes.
1.P.2A. Conceptual Understanding: Objects can only be seen when light shines on them. Some materials allow light to pass through them; others allow only some light to pass through; and some do not allow any light to pass through and will create a shadow of the object. Technology such as mirrors can change the direction of a beam of light.
1.E.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Objects in the sky move in predictable patterns. Some objects are better seen in the day sky and some are better seen in the night sky. The Sun is a star that provides heat and light energy for Earth.
1.E.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Earth is made of different materials, including rocks, sand, soil, and water. An Earth material is a resource that comes from Earth. Earth materials can be classified by their observable properties.
2.E.2A. Conceptual Understanding: Weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, precipitation (rain, sleet, snow, and hail), and temperature in a particular region at a particular time. Scientists measure and record these conditions to describe the weather and to identify patterns over time. Weather scientists (meteorologists) forecast severe weather so that communities can prepare for and respond to these events.
2.P.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Solids and liquids are two forms of matter that have distinct observable properties. Some matter can be mixed together and then separated again. Solids and liquids can be changed from one form to another when heat is added or removed.
2.P.4A. Conceptual Understanding: An object that is not moving will only move if it is pushed or pulled. Pushes and pulls can vary in strength and direction and can affect the motion of an object. Gravity is a pull that makes objects fall to the ground. Friction is produced when two objects come in contact with each other and can be reduced if needed.
3.P.2A. Conceptual Understanding: Matter exists in several different states and is classified based on observable and measurable properties. Matter can be changed from one state to another when heat (thermal energy) is added or removed.
3.E.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Earth is made of materials (including rocks, minerals, soil, and water) that have distinct properties. These materials provide resources for human activities.
3.E.4B. Conceptual Understanding: Earth’s surface has changed over time by natural processes and by human activities. Humans can take steps to reduce the impact of these changes.
3.L.5A. Conceptual Understanding: The characteristics of an environment (including physical characteristics, temperature, availability of resources, or the kinds and numbers of organisms present) influence the diversity of organisms that live there. Organisms can survive only in environments where their basic needs are met. All organisms need energy to live and grow. This energy is obtained from food. The role an organism serves in an ecosystem can be described by the way in which it gets its energy.
4.E.2A. Conceptual Understanding: Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of gases, including water vapor and oxygen. The movement of water, which is found almost everywhere on Earth including the atmosphere, changes form and cycles between Earth’s surface and the air and back again. This cycling of water is driven by energy from the Sun. The movement of water in the water cycle is a major pattern that influences weather conditions. Clouds form during this cycle and various types of precipitation result.
4.E.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Astronomy is the study of objects in our solar system and beyond. A solar system includes a sun (star), and all other objects that orbit that sun. Planets in our night sky change positions and are not always visible from Earth as they orbit our Sun. Stars that are beyond the solar system can be seen in the night sky in patterns called constellations. Constellations can be used for navigation and appear to move together across the sky because of Earth’s rotation.
4.E.3B. Conceptual Understanding: Earth orbits around the Sun and the Moon orbits around Earth. These movements together with the rotation of Earth on a tilted axis result in patterns that can be observed and predicted.
4.P.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Light, as a form of energy, has specific properties including color and brightness. Light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object. The way light reacts when it strikes an object depends on the object’s properties.
5.E.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Some of the land on Earth is located above water and some is located below the oceans. The downhill movement of water as it flows to the ocean shapes the appearance of the land. There are patterns in the location and structure of landforms found on the continents and those found on the ocean floor.
5.L.4B. Conceptual Understanding: All organisms need energy to live and grow. Energy is obtained from food. The role an organism serves in an ecosystem can be described by the way in which it gets its energy. Energy is transferred within an ecosystem as organisms produce, consume, or decompose food. A healthy ecosystem is one in which a diversity of life forms are able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life.
6.E.2A. Conceptual Understanding: Earth’s atmosphere, an envelope of gases that surround the planet, makes conditions on Earth suitable for living things and influences weather. Water is always moving between the atmosphere (troposphere) and the surface of Earth as a result of the force of gravity and energy from the Sun. The Sun is the driving energy source for heating Earth and for the circulation of Earth’s atmosphere.
6.E.2B. Conceptual Understanding: The complex patterns of changes and movement of water in the atmosphere determined by winds, landforms, ocean temperatures and currents, and convection are major determinants of local weather patterns and climate. Technology has enhanced our ability to measure and predict weather patterns.
6.P.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Energy manifests itself in multiple forms, such as mechanical (kinetic energy and potential energy), electrical, chemical, radiant (solar), and thermal energy. According to the principle of conservation of energy, energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but it can be transferred from one place to another and transformed between systems.
6.L.5B. Conceptual Understanding: The Plant Kingdom consists of organisms that primarily make their own food (autotrophs) and are commonly classified based on internal structures that function in the transport of food and water. Plants have structural and behavioral adaptations that increase the chances of reproduction and survival in changing environments.
8.E.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Earth’s solar system is part of the Milky Way Galaxy, which is one of many galaxies in the universe. The planet Earth is a tiny part of a vast universe that has developed over a span of time beginning with a period of extreme and rapid expansion.
8.E.4B. Conceptual Understanding: Earth’s solar system consists of the Sun and other objects that are held in orbit around the Sun by its gravitational pull on them. Motions within the Earth-Moon-Sun system have effects that can be observed on Earth.
8.E.5A. Conceptual Understanding: All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among Earth’s systems. Because Earth’s processes are dynamic and interactive in nature, the surface of Earth is constantly changing. Earth’s hot interior is a main source of energy that drives the cycling and moving of materials. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current crustal movements at the Earth’s surface. This theory provides a framework for understanding geological history.