SKE1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate observations about time patterns (day to night and night to day) and objects (sun, moon, stars) in the day and night sky.
- Ask questions to classify objects according to those seen in the day sky, the night sky, and both.
- Develop a model to communicate the changes that occur in the sky during the day, as day turns into night, during the night, and as night turns into day using pictures and words.
SKP2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to compare and describe different types of motion.
- Plan and carry out an investigation to determine the relationship between an object’s physical attributes and its resulting motion (straight, circular, back and forth, fast and slow, and motionless) when a force is applied. (Examples could include toss, drop, push, and pull.)
- Construct an argument as to the best way to move an object based on its physical attributes.
S1E1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate weather data to identify weather patterns.
- Analyze data to identify seasonal patterns of change
S1P1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to investigate light and sound.
- Use observations to construct an explanation of how light is required to make objects visible.
- Ask questions to identify and compare sources of light.
- Plan and carry out an investigation of shadows by placing objects at various points from a source of light.
S1L1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the basic needs of plants and animals.
- Develop models to identify the parts of a plant—root, stem, leaf, and flower.
- Ask questions to compare and contrast the basic needs of plants (air, water, light, and nutrients) and animals (air, water, food, and shelter).
S2E1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about stars having different sizes and brightness.
- Ask questions to describe the physical attributes (size and brightness) of stars.
- Construct an argument to support the claim that although the sun appears to be the brightest and largest star, it is actually medium in size and brightness.
S2E2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to develop an understanding of the patterns of the sun and the moon and the sun’s effect on Earth.
- Plan and carry out an investigation to determine the effect of the position of the sun in relation to a fixed object on Earth at various times of the day.
- Design and build a structure that demonstrates how shadows change throughout the day.
- Represent data in tables and/or graphs of the length of the day and night to recognize the change in seasons.
- Use data from personal observations to describe, illustrate, and predict how the appearance of the moon changes over time in a pattern.
S3P1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the ways heat energy is transferred and measured.
- Ask questions to identify sources of heat energy.
S4E1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to compare and contrast the physical attributes of stars and planets.
- Ask questions to compare and contrast technological advances that have changed the amount and type of information on distant objects in the sky.
- Construct an argument on why some stars (including the Earth’s sun) appear to be larger or brighter than others.
- Construct an explanation of the differences between stars and planets. d. Evaluate strengths and limitations of models of our solar system in describing relative size, order, appearance and composition of planets and the sun.
S4E2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to model the effects of the position and motion of the Earth and the moon in relation to the sun as observed from the Earth.
- Develop a model to support an explanation of why the length of day and night change throughout the year.
- Develop a model based on observations to describe the repeating pattern of the phases of the moon (new, crescent, quarter, gibbous, and full).
- Construct an explanation of how the Earth’s orbit, with its consistent tilt, affects seasonal changes.
S4E3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to demonstrate the water cycle.
- Plan and carry out investigations to observe the flow of energy in water as it changes states from solid (ice) to liquid (water) to gas (water vapor) and changes from gas to liquid to solid.
- Develop models to illustrate multiple pathways water may take during the water cycle (evaporation, condensation, and precipitation).
S4P1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the nature of light and how light interacts with objects.
- Plan and carry out investigations to describe the path light travels from a light source to a mirror and how it is reflected by the mirror using different angles. c. Plan and carry out an investigation utilizing everyday materials to explore examples of when light is refracted
S4L1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the roles of organisms and the flow of energy within an ecosystem.
- Develop a model to describe the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers in a community.
- Develop simple models to illustrate the flow of energy through a food web/food chain beginning with sunlight and including producers, consumers, and decomposers.
S6E1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about current scientific views of the universe and how those views evolved.
- Ask questions to determine changes in models of Earth’s position in the solar system, and origins of the universe as evidence that scientific theories change with the addition of new information. (Clarification statement: Students should consider Earth’s position in geocentric and heliocentric models and the Big Bang as it describes the formation of the universe.)
- Develop a model to represent the position of the solar system in the Milky Way galaxy and in the known universe.
- Analyze and interpret data to compare and contrast the planets in our solar system in terms of:
- size relative to Earth,
- surface and atmospheric features,
- relative distance from the sun, and
- ability to support life.
- Develop and use a model to explain the interaction of gravity and inertia that governs the motion of objects in the solar system.
- Ask questions to compare and contrast the characteristics, composition, and location of comets, asteroids, and meteoroids.
S6E2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the effects of the relative positions of the sun, Earth, and moon.
- Develop and use a model to demonstrate the phases of the moon by showing the relative positions of the sun, Earth, and moon.
- Construct an explanation of the cause of solar and lunar eclipses.
- Analyze and interpret data to relate the tilt of the Earth to the distribution of sunlight throughout the year and its effect on seasons.
S6E3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to recognize the significant role of water in Earth processes.
- Plan and carry out an investigation to illustrate the role of the sun’s energy in atmospheric conditions that lead to the cycling of water
- Ask questions to identify and communicate, using graphs and maps, the composition, location, and subsurface topography of the world’s oceans.
- Analyze and interpret data to create graphic representations of the causes and effects of waves, currents, and tides in Earth’s systems.
S6E4. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how the sun, land, and water affect climate and weather.
- Plan and carry out an investigation to demonstrate how energy from the sun transfers heat to air, land and water at different rates. (Clarification statement: Heat transfer should include the processes of conduction, convection, and radiation.)
- Develop a model demonstrating the interaction between unequal heating and the rotation of the Earth that causes local and global wind systems.
- Construct an explanation of how the movement of lithospheric plates, called plate tectonics, can cause major geologic events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. (Clarification statement: Include convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries.)